The Antiepileptic Effect of Riluzole and In Combination with Phenytoin On Maximal Electroshock Induced Seizures In Albino Rats: An Experimental Study
PDF Downloads : 9    VIEW PDF


Maximal electroshock seizure
Hind limb tonic extensor

How to Cite

Jadhav, D. A. R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., Sangisetti , M. V. M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., Nayak, D. B. B., Vakade, D. K. P., & Abhavathi, M. V. N. . (2016). The Antiepileptic Effect of Riluzole and In Combination with Phenytoin On Maximal Electroshock Induced Seizures In Albino Rats: An Experimental Study. VIMS Health Science Journal , 3(2), 53-58. Retrieved from


Despite the introduction of several new therapeutic options, a significant fraction of the patients with epilepsy continue to live with uncontrolled seizures. Although large no. of antiepileptic drug area available in the market, most of these agents have a limited spectrum of antiepileptic activity and all have certain negative properties that limit their utility and complicate patient management, so there is still a need for an ideal antiepileptic agent with properties like broad spectrum activity, rapid onset of action, least side effects, good oral bioavailability and low cost. Methodology: Albino rats weighing 150-200g, 6-8 weeks old of either sex, were used in the study. Rats were randomly allocated in to 9 groups each group consists of six. Group 1: control II, III: Riluzole 5, 10mg/kg respectively, IV, V, VI: Phenytoin 25, 50, 100mg/kg respectively. VII, VIII, IX: Riluzole 10mg/kg in combination with Phenytoin 25, 50, 100mg/kg respectively. Drugs were administered to all groups orally by orogastric tube, as per the study subgroups. 30miutes later the rats were subjected to an electric shock by using an electro convulsiometer: Presence or absence of hind limb extensor, duration of Hind limb tonic extensor (HLTE) phase & duration of clonus in sec. Result: Riluzole at both dosages of 5 & 10mg/kg did not modify the MES induced convulsions. Phenytoin at a dose of 25mg/kg & 50mg/kg could not abolish the hind limb extension. However phenytoin at 100mg/kg produced 100% abolition of Hind Limb Extension. Phenytoin at 25mg/kg & 50mg/kg dosage insignificantly reduced the duration of Hind Limb Extensions without any effect on clonic phase. At the same time phenytoin at 100mg/kg significantly increased the duration of clonus from 9, 8 to 18, 3 seconds, but interestingly when Riluzole 10mg/kg was combined with
Phenytoin 50mg/kg, the Hind Limb Extension was abolished in 50% animals. When the dose of Phenytoin was further increased to 100mg it produced 100% protection by abolishing Hind Limb Extension. Similar effects were produced when Riluzole was combined with 100mg of Phenytoin. Conclusion: Riluzole alone was found to be ineffective against MES induced seizures, however it was found to enhance the antiepileptic effect of phenytoin against MES induced seizures.

PDF Downloads : 9    VIEW PDF


Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, Bogaz A, Cross JH, Elger CE, etal., A practical clinical defination of epilepsy, ILAE Offical Report, Epilepsia 2014;55 (4);475-82

Gopi G, Jayasri P, Elumalali A. Antiepileptic effect of MALACHRA CAPITATA L. On maximal electro shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures. International journals of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Year,2(2):104-108

Bharucha NE, Epidemiology of epilepsy in india. Epilepsia 2003;44(1):9-11

White HS, Preclinical development of antiepileptic drugs;Past,present and future directions. Epilepsia 2003;44(7):2-8

La Roche SM, Helmers SL. The new antiepileptic drug. JAMA 2004;291(5):605.

Raymond Dingledine and Chris J McBain Glutamate & asparate are the major excitatory transmitters in the brain, Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular & Medical Aspects, 6th edition (1999).

Olsen RW, Wamsley JK, Lee RJ, Lomax P, Benzodiazepine / Barbiturate / GABA receptor chloride ionophore complex is a genetic model of generalized epilepsy . Adv Neurol 1986;44:365-78.

Riluzole enhances the anti-siezure action of conventional anti-epileptic drugs against pentetrazole induced convulsion in mice. Pol. J Pharmacol, 2004;56(2):187-193

James O, McNamara, Pharmacotherapy of the Epilepsies in : Laurence L, Bruton, Bruce A, Chabner Bjorn C, Knollmann, editors, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological basis of therapeutic. 12th ED. New york: McGraw Hill ; 2011,p. 124-42 .

Satoskar RS, Bhendarkar SD, RegeNN, pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutic. 22nd ED, Mumbai, India : Popular Prakashan: 2011,p.124 -42

Khanna N, Balla S, Verma V, Sharma KK. Modulary effect of nifedipine and nimodipine in experimental convulsion. Indian journal of Pharmacology 2000 ;32: 347-352

Ashish P , Anovadiya , Jayesh J, Sanmukhani, Vishal K, Vadgama, C.B. Tripathi Evalution of antiepileptic and memory retention action of curcumi per se and in combination with antiepileptic drugs. Asian J Pharmacology 2013;6(S2): 145-148

Castel-Branco MM, Alves GL, Figue Falcao AC, Caramona MM. The electroshock seizure (mes) moderate preclinical assessment of potential antiepileptic drugs. Method Find Each Pharmcol 2009,31(2):101-106

Ramanand J Patil, Patel SB, Abhijeet, Madhukar Gaikwad. Evalution of anticonvulsant activity of ameprazole comparison with phenytoin in albino mice INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENT PHARMACOLOGY.2015;5(1):18-23.

Kretschmer BD, Kratzer U, Schmiat WJ; Riluzole, a glutamate release inhibitor and motor behavior, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 1998,358,181-190

Mantz J, Laudenbach V, Lechamy JB, Henzel D, Desmonts JM, Riluzole, a novel antiglutamate blocks GABA uptake by striatal synaptosomes Eur J Pharmacol,1994,257,R7-R8.

Samuel D, Blin O, Dusticier N, Nieoullon A: Effects of riluzole (2-amino-6-trifluoromethoxy benzothiazole) on striatal neurochemical marker in the rat, with special reference to the dopamine, choline, GABA and glutamate synaptosomal high affinity uptake. Fundam Clin Pharmacol.1992;6(4-5):177-84

Mary V, Wahi F, Stutzman JM: Effect of riluzole on quinolinate-induced neuronal damage in rats: comparison with blockers od glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurosci Lett, 1995, 201, 92-96.

Malgouris C, Daniel M, Doble A: Neuroprotective effect of riluzole on N-methyl-D-asparate- or veratridine- induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal slices, Neurosci Lett, 1994,177,95-99.

Mizoule J, Meidrum B, Mazadier M, Croucher M, Ollat C, Uzan A, Legrand JJ et al: 2-Amino-6-trifluoromethoxy - benzothiazole, a possible antagonist of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission, I, Anticonvulsant properties. Neuropharmacology,1985,24,767-773.

De Sarro G, Siniscalchi A, Ferreri G, Gallelli L, De Sarro A: NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors are involved in the Anticonvulsant activity of riluzole in DBA2/mice. Eur J Phamacol, 2000, 408,25-34.

Parsons CG, Danysz W, Quack G: Glutamate in CNS disorders as target for drug development: an update. Drugs News Perspect, 1998,11,523-569.

Czuczwar SJ, Turski WA, Kleinrok Z: interaction of calcium channel blockers and excitatory amino acid antagonist with conventional antiepileptic drugs. CNS Drug Rev. 1996,2, 452-467.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.