Introduction: Antibiotics are a class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms. These are among the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. The use of antibiotics has contributed to the dramatic fall in morbidity from communicable and infectious diseases over the last 50 years globally. Overuse of antibiotic is one of the most important factors for the development and spread of resistance in the hospital, as well as in the community. Methodology: The present study was conducted in pediatric ward of a tertiary care institute. The study population included 250 children. The group consisted of 250 consecutive children admitted in one unit of the pediatric ward and they were analyzed for antibiotic use without any prior priming of the members of the unit regarding rationality of antibiotic use. Results: Age and sex wise distribution of 250 children included in the study. Of these 166(57%) were males and 84 (43%) were females. 60 received antibiotics for respiratory tract infections, this being the commonest disease for which antibiotics were received. 55 (44%) children received antibiotics in rational way. Conclusion: From this study it is clear that there is lack of proper rational antibiotic usage by unit doctors. To conclude it can be stated that inappropriate use of antibiotics is increasing and is responsible for rapidly developing antimicrobial resistance. To increase rational use of antibiotics the members of the unit (treating physicians) should be motivated regarding correct uses of antibiotics and hazards of their inappropriate use. A proper workshop should be arranged for this.
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